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About OAuth Grant Types

OAuth provides the following grant types that the client can use to validate itself when it requests for a token.

  • AUTHORIZATION_CODE (default)

  • IMPLICIT

  • RESOURCE_OWNER_PASSWORD_CREDENTIALS

  • CLIENT_CREDENTIALS

Each requires a specific configuration of the OAuth Provider Global Element.

Authorization Code

The Authorization Code grant type is the most frequently used grant type and the most secure.

To implement an authorization code, your client needs to define the following information:

  • Client ID

  • Client Secret

  • Redirect URL

The following typical configuration of an oauth2 module includes an authorization code client:


         
      
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<oauth2-provider:config
        name="oauth2Provider"
        providerName="SampleAPI"
        supportedGrantTypes="AUTHORIZATION_CODE"
        port="8081"
        authorizationEndpointPath="sampleapi/api/authorize"
        accessTokenEndpointPath="sampleapi/api/token"
        resourceOwnerSecurityProvider-ref="resourceOwnerSecurityProvider"
        scopes="READ_RESOURCE POST_RESOURCE" doc:name="OAuth provider module">
            <oauth2-provider:clients>
                <oauth2-provider:client clientId="myclientid" secret="myclientsecret"
                                        type="CONFIDENTIAL" clientName="Mule Bookstore" description="Mule-powered On-line Bookstore">
                    <oauth2-provider:redirect-uris>
                        <oauth2-provider:redirect-uri>http://localhost*</oauth2-provider:redirect-uri>
                    </oauth2-provider:redirect-uris>
                    <oauth2-provider:authorized-grant-types>
                        <oauth2-provider:authorized-grant-type>AUTHORIZATION_CODE</oauth2-provider:authorized-grant-type>
                    </oauth2-provider:authorized-grant-types>
                    <oauth2-provider:scopes>
                        <oauth2-provider:scope>READ_RESOURCE</oauth2-provider:scope>
                        <oauth2-provider:scope>POST_RESOURCE</oauth2-provider:scope>
                    </oauth2-provider:scopes>
                </oauth2-provider:client>
            </oauth2-provider:clients>
    </oauth2-provider:config>

To test this example, perform an OAuth2 dance as follows:

  1. Invoke the authorization endpoint with a request that includes the client id, the type of authorization you want to perform, the redirect URL, and the scopes you want to authorize:

    
                
             
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    http://localhost:8081/sampleapi/api/authorize?response_type=code&client_id=myclientid&scope=READ_RESOURCE&redirect_uri=http://localhost:8081/redirect

    The login page appears in the browser. After the user logs in, the provider sends a redirect to the redirect_uri. This redirect includes additional properties, including an access code.

  2. Send the access code to the token endpoint in a request that also includes the client id, the client secret and some of the information in the previous call:

    
                
             
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    http://localhost:8081/sampleapi/api/token?grant_type=authorization_code&client_id=myclientid&client_secret=myclientsecret&code=<use here the access code>&redirect_uri=http://localhost:8081/redirect

    The JSON response appears:

    
                
             
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    {
        "scope":"READ_RESOURCE",
        "expires_in":86400,
        "token_type":"bearer",
        "access_token":"huig0RVoGdFoz_mvBaV4ovfjj0Afe8yOAp_v2q0tunevsJVpD2HNRhx8lL6JnMDys7KE3O4TfijknWPzGJZ-NA"
    }
  3. Include the access_token as a header in your requests to access to protected resources:

    
                
             
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    access_token=huig0RVoGdFoz_mvBaV4ovfjj0Afe8yOAp_v2q0tunevsJVpD2HNRhx8lL6JnMDys7KE3O4TfijknWPzGJZ-NA

Implicit

The implicit grant type is not as secure as, but easier to use than the authorization code grant type. Javascript clients and mobile applications often use this grant type. The authorization server issues an access token directly and skips the step of issuing an intermediate access code.

The following typical configuration of an OAuth2 module includes an implicit grant client:


         
      
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<oauth2-provider:config
        name="oauth2Provider"
        providerName="SampleAPI"
        supportedGrantTypes="IMPLICIT"
        port="8082"
        authorizationEndpointPath="sampleapi/api/authorize"
        accessTokenEndpointPath="sampleapi/api/token"
        resourceOwnerSecurityProvider-ref="resourceOwnerSecurityProvider"
        scopes="READ_RESOURCE POST_RESOURCE" doc:name="OAuth provider module">
            <oauth2-provider:clients>
                <oauth2-provider:client clientId="myclientid2" secret="myclientsecret"
                                        type="CONFIDENTIAL" clientName="Mule Bookstore" description="Mule-powered On-line Bookstore">
                    <oauth2-provider:redirect-uris>
                        <oauth2-provider:redirect-uri>http://localhost*</oauth2-provider:redirect-uri>
                    </oauth2-provider:redirect-uris>
                    <oauth2-provider:authorized-grant-types>
                        <oauth2-provider:authorized-grant-type>TOKEN</oauth2-provider:authorized-grant-type>
                    </oauth2-provider:authorized-grant-types>
                    <oauth2-provider:scopes>
                        <oauth2-provider:scope>READ_RESOURCE</oauth2-provider:scope>
                        <oauth2-provider:scope>POST_RESOURCE</oauth2-provider:scope>
                    </oauth2-provider:scopes>
                </oauth2-provider:client>
            </oauth2-provider:clients>
    </oauth2-provider:config>

The following Mule flow that includes this configuration:


         
      
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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
 
<mule xmlns:json="http://www.mulesoft.org/schema/mule/json" xmlns:core="http://www.mulesoft.org/schema/mule/core"
xmlns:http="http://www.mulesoft.org/schema/mule/http"
xmlns="http://www.mulesoft.org/schema/mule/core" xmlns:doc="http://www.mulesoft.org/schema/mule/documentation"
xmlns:spring="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"  xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xmlns:mule-ss="http://www.mulesoft.org/schema/mule/spring-security" xmlns:ss="http://www.springframework.org/schema/security"
xmlns:oauth2-provider="http://www.mulesoft.org/schema/mule/oauth2-provider"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.mulesoft.org/schema/mule/core http://www.mulesoft.org/schema/mule/core/current/mule.xsd
http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans-current.xsd
http://www.mulesoft.org/schema/mule/http http://www.mulesoft.org/schema/mule/http/current/mule-http.xsd
http://www.mulesoft.org/schema/mule/json http://www.mulesoft.org/schema/mule/json/current/mule-json.xsd
http://www.mulesoft.org/schema/mule/spring-security http://www.mulesoft.org/schema/mule/spring-security/current/mule-spring-security.xsd
http://www.springframework.org/schema/security http://www.springframework.org/schema/security/spring-security.xsd
http://www.mulesoft.org/schema/mule/oauth2-provider http://www.mulesoft.org/schema/mule/oauth2-provider/current/mule-oauth2-provider.xsd">
     
 
    <oauth2-provider:config
        name="oauth2ProviderImplicit"
        providerName="SampleAPI"
        supportedGrantTypes="IMPLICIT"
        port="8082"
        authorizationEndpointPath="sampleapi/api/authorize"
        accessTokenEndpointPath="sampleapi/api/token"
        resourceOwnerSecurityProvider-ref="resourceOwnerSecurityProvider"
        scopes="READ_RESOURCE POST_RESOURCE" doc:name="OAuth provider module">
            <oauth2-provider:clients>
                <oauth2-provider:client clientId="myclientid2" secret="myclientsecret"
                                        type="CONFIDENTIAL" clientName="Mule Bookstore" description="Mule-powered On-line Bookstore">
                    <oauth2-provider:redirect-uris>
                        <oauth2-provider:redirect-uri>http://localhost*</oauth2-provider:redirect-uri>
                    </oauth2-provider:redirect-uris>
                    <oauth2-provider:authorized-grant-types>
                        <oauth2-provider:authorized-grant-type>TOKEN</oauth2-provider:authorized-grant-type>
                    </oauth2-provider:authorized-grant-types>
                    <oauth2-provider:scopes>
                        <oauth2-provider:scope>READ_RESOURCE</oauth2-provider:scope>
                        <oauth2-provider:scope>POST_RESOURCE</oauth2-provider:scope>
                    </oauth2-provider:scopes>
                </oauth2-provider:client>
            </oauth2-provider:clients>
    </oauth2-provider:config>
    <http:listener-config name="HTTP_Listener_Configuration" host="localhost" port="8082" doc:name="HTTP Listener Configuration"/>
 
    <flow name="protected-implicit" doc:name="DemoRestRouterFlow1">
        <http:listener config-ref="HTTP_Listener_Configuration" path="/resources" doc:name="HTTP"/>    
        <oauth2-provider:validate config-ref="oauth2ProviderImplicit" doc:name="Validate Token" scopes="READ_RESOURCE"/>
        <set-payload value="#[ ['name' : 'payroll', 'uri' : 'http://localhost:8081/resources/payroll'] ]" doc:name="Set Payload"/>
        <json:object-to-json-transformer doc:name="Object to JSON"/>
    </flow>
     
</mule>

To test this example, perform an OAuth2 dance as follows:

  1. Invoke the authorization endpoint with a request that includes the client id, the type of authorization you want to perform, the redirect URL, and the scopes you want to authorize. The structure of the request should look like the URI below:

    
                
             
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    http://localhost:8082/sampleapi/api/authorize?response_type=token&client_id=myclientid2&scope=READ_RESOURCE&redirect_uri=http://localhost:8082/redirect 
  2. This displays the login page in the browser. After the user logs in, the provider sends a redirect to the redirect_uri. This redirect already includes the token, not just an access code:

    
                
             
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    http://localhost:8082/redirect#access_token=d8gI_X7TLuAmYuZvlt0wx7sq1tnNgI9Ku9DazKAJYWXbB9QNzSTNxnXCeg75x5zZzT4zAcuCVkit6oBHkoSFow&token_type=bearer&expires_in=86399&scope=READ_RESOURCE
  3. Include the access_token as a header in your requests to access to protected resources:

    
                
             
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    access_token=huig0RVoGdFoz_mvBaV4ovfjj0Afe8yOAp_v2q0tunevsJVpD2HNRhx8lL6JnMDys7KE3O4TfijknWPzGJZ-NA

Resource Owner and Password Credentials

The resource owner password credentials grant type is less secure than both the implicit and the authorization code grant types. The client needs to handle the user’s credentials. This requires that users have a high degree of trust in the client. This grant type is often used when the consumer of the protected resource is a widget of the same service.

The following code shows the typical configuration of an OAuth2 module includes resource owner password credentials:


         
      
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<oauth2-provider:config
        name="oauth2Provider"
        providerName="SampleAPI"
        supportedGrantTypes="RESOURCE_OWNER_PASSWORD_CREDENTIALS"
        port="8083"
        authorizationEndpointPath="sampleapi/api/authorize"
        accessTokenEndpointPath="sampleapi/api/token"
        resourceOwnerSecurityProvider-ref="resourceOwnerSecurityProvider"
        scopes="READ_RESOURCE POST_RESOURCE" doc:name="OAuth provider module">
            <oauth2-provider:clients>
                <oauth2-provider:client clientId="myclientid3" secret="myclientsecret"
                                        type="CONFIDENTIAL" clientName="Mule Bookstore" description="Mule-powered On-line Bookstore">
                    <oauth2-provider:redirect-uris>
                        <oauth2-provider:redirect-uri>http://localhost*</oauth2-provider:redirect-uri>
                    </oauth2-provider:redirect-uris>
                    <oauth2-provider:authorized-grant-types>
                        <oauth2-provider:authorized-grant-type>PASSWORD</oauth2-provider:authorized-grant-type>
                    </oauth2-provider:authorized-grant-types>
                    <oauth2-provider:scopes>
                        <oauth2-provider:scope>READ_RESOURCE</oauth2-provider:scope>
                        <oauth2-provider:scope>POST_RESOURCE</oauth2-provider:scope>
                    </oauth2-provider:scopes>
                </oauth2-provider:client>
            </oauth2-provider:clients>
    </oauth2-provider:config>

The following Mule flow includes this configuration:


         
      
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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
 
<mule xmlns:json="http://www.mulesoft.org/schema/mule/json" xmlns:core="http://www.mulesoft.org/schema/mule/core"
xmlns:http="http://www.mulesoft.org/schema/mule/http"
xmlns="http://www.mulesoft.org/schema/mule/core" xmlns:doc="http://www.mulesoft.org/schema/mule/documentation"
xmlns:spring="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"  xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xmlns:mule-ss="http://www.mulesoft.org/schema/mule/spring-security" xmlns:ss="http://www.springframework.org/schema/security"
xmlns:oauth2-provider="http://www.mulesoft.org/schema/mule/oauth2-provider"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.mulesoft.org/schema/mule/core http://www.mulesoft.org/schema/mule/core/current/mule.xsd
http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans-current.xsd
http://www.mulesoft.org/schema/mule/http http://www.mulesoft.org/schema/mule/http/current/mule-http.xsd
http://www.mulesoft.org/schema/mule/json http://www.mulesoft.org/schema/mule/json/current/mule-json.xsd
http://www.mulesoft.org/schema/mule/spring-security http://www.mulesoft.org/schema/mule/spring-security/current/mule-spring-security.xsd
http://www.springframework.org/schema/security http://www.springframework.org/schema/security/spring-security.xsd
http://www.mulesoft.org/schema/mule/oauth2-provider http://www.mulesoft.org/schema/mule/oauth2-provider/current/mule-oauth2-provider.xsd">
     
 
    <oauth2-provider:config
        name="oauth2ProviderRopc"
        providerName="SampleAPI"
        supportedGrantTypes="RESOURCE_OWNER_PASSWORD_CREDENTIALS"
        port="8083"
        authorizationEndpointPath="sampleapi/api/authorize"
        accessTokenEndpointPath="sampleapi/api/token"
        resourceOwnerSecurityProvider-ref="resourceOwnerSecurityProvider"
        scopes="READ_RESOURCE POST_RESOURCE" doc:name="OAuth provider module">
            <oauth2-provider:clients>
                <oauth2-provider:client clientId="myclientid3" secret="myclientsecret"
                                        type="CONFIDENTIAL" clientName="Mule Bookstore" description="Mule-powered On-line Bookstore">
                    <oauth2-provider:redirect-uris>
                        <oauth2-provider:redirect-uri>http://localhost*</oauth2-provider:redirect-uri>
                    </oauth2-provider:redirect-uris>
                    <oauth2-provider:authorized-grant-types>
                        <oauth2-provider:authorized-grant-type>PASSWORD</oauth2-provider:authorized-grant-type>
                        <oauth2-provider:authorized-grant-type>AUTHORIZATION_CODE</oauth2-provider:authorized-grant-type>
                    </oauth2-provider:authorized-grant-types>
                    <oauth2-provider:scopes>
                        <oauth2-provider:scope>READ_RESOURCE</oauth2-provider:scope>
                        <oauth2-provider:scope>POST_RESOURCE</oauth2-provider:scope>
                    </oauth2-provider:scopes>
                </oauth2-provider:client>
            </oauth2-provider:clients>
    </oauth2-provider:config>
    <http:listener-config name="HTTP_Listener_Configuration" host="localhost" port="8083" doc:name="HTTP Listener Configuration"/>
    <flow name="protected-ropwc" doc:name="DemoRestRouterFlow1">
        <http:listener config-ref="HTTP_Listener_Configuration" path="/resources" doc:name="HTTP"/>        
        <oauth2-provider:validate config-ref="oauth2ProviderRopc" doc:name="Validate Token" scopes="READ_RESOURCE"/>
        <set-payload value="#[ ['name' : 'payroll', 'uri' : 'http://localhost:8081/resources/payroll'] ]" doc:name="Set Payload"/>
        <json:object-to-json-transformer doc:name="Object to JSON"/>
    </flow>
     
</mule>

To test this example:

  1. Send a POST request to the token endpoint that includes the user name and password:

    
                
             
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    POST /sampleapi/api/token HTTP/1.1
    Host: localhost:8083
    Cache-Control: no-cache
    Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
     
    grant_type=password&username=john&password=doe&client_id=myclientid3&client_secret=myclientsecret&scope=READ_RESOURCE
  2. If everything works correctly, a JSON response appears. For example:

    
                
             
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    {
        "scope": "READ_RESOURCE",
        "expires_in": 86399,
        "token_type": "bearer",
        "access_token": "sgFJ8Y3VPcMOdldrFtCMcWe8VQLdOA8L6pcrqjTYA6L3G9bTIDiOFkiiSC2lmFx-RUKtkzTupW0ugU49hqHhpg"
    }
  3. You can now include the access_token as a header in your requests to access to protected resources:

    
                
             
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    access_token=sgFJ8Y3VPcMOdldrFtCMcWe8VQLdOA8L6pcrqjTYA6L3G9bTIDiOFkiiSC2lmFx-RUKtkzTupW0ugU49hqHhpg

Client Credentials

The client credentials grant type is the least secure grant type. Use this grant type when the client is the resource owner or an authorization has previously been arranged with the authorization server. In this grant type, an access token is obtained if the client identifier and the client secret are valid.

The following typical configuration of an OAuth2 module includes client credentials:


         
      
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<oauth2-provider:config
        name="oauth2Provider"
        providerName="SampleAPI"
        supportedGrantTypes="CLIENT_CREDENTIALS"
        port="8084"
        authorizationEndpointPath="sampleapi/api/authorize"
        accessTokenEndpointPath="sampleapi/api/token"
        resourceOwnerSecurityProvider-ref="resourceOwnerSecurityProvider"
        scopes="READ_RESOURCE POST_RESOURCE" doc:name="OAuth provider module">
            <oauth2-provider:clients>
                <oauth2-provider:client clientId="myclientid4" secret="myclientsecret"
                                        type="CONFIDENTIAL" clientName="Mule Bookstore" description="Mule-powered On-line Bookstore">
                    <oauth2-provider:redirect-uris>
                        <oauth2-provider:redirect-uri>http://localhost*</oauth2-provider:redirect-uri>
                    </oauth2-provider:redirect-uris>
                    <oauth2-provider:authorized-grant-types>
                        <oauth2-provider:authorized-grant-type>CLIENT_CREDENTIALS</oauth2-provider:authorized-grant-type>
                    </oauth2-provider:authorized-grant-types>
                    <oauth2-provider:scopes>
                        <oauth2-provider:scope>READ_RESOURCE</oauth2-provider:scope>
                        <oauth2-provider:scope>POST_RESOURCE</oauth2-provider:scope>
                    </oauth2-provider:scopes>
                </oauth2-provider:client>
            </oauth2-provider:clients>
    </oauth2-provider:config>

The following Mule flow includes this configuration:


         
      
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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
 
<mule xmlns:json="http://www.mulesoft.org/schema/mule/json" xmlns:core="http://www.mulesoft.org/schema/mule/core"
xmlns:http="http://www.mulesoft.org/schema/mule/http"
xmlns="http://www.mulesoft.org/schema/mule/core" xmlns:doc="http://www.mulesoft.org/schema/mule/documentation"
xmlns:spring="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"  xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xmlns:mule-ss="http://www.mulesoft.org/schema/mule/spring-security" xmlns:ss="http://www.springframework.org/schema/security"
xmlns:oauth2-provider="http://www.mulesoft.org/schema/mule/oauth2-provider"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.mulesoft.org/schema/mule/core http://www.mulesoft.org/schema/mule/core/current/mule.xsd
http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans-current.xsd
http://www.mulesoft.org/schema/mule/http http://www.mulesoft.org/schema/mule/http/current/mule-http.xsd
http://www.mulesoft.org/schema/mule/json http://www.mulesoft.org/schema/mule/json/current/mule-json.xsd
http://www.mulesoft.org/schema/mule/spring-security http://www.mulesoft.org/schema/mule/spring-security/current/mule-spring-security.xsd
http://www.springframework.org/schema/security http://www.springframework.org/schema/security/spring-security.xsd
http://www.mulesoft.org/schema/mule/oauth2-provider http://www.mulesoft.org/schema/mule/oauth2-provider/current/mule-oauth2-provider.xsd">
     
 
    <oauth2-provider:config
        name="oauth2ProviderClientCreds"
        providerName="SampleAPI"
        supportedGrantTypes="CLIENT_CREDENTIALS"
        port="8084"
        authorizationEndpointPath="sampleapi/api/authorize"
        accessTokenEndpointPath="sampleapi/api/token"
        resourceOwnerSecurityProvider-ref="resourceOwnerSecurityProvider"
        scopes="READ_RESOURCE POST_RESOURCE" doc:name="OAuth provider module">
            <oauth2-provider:clients>
                <oauth2-provider:client clientId="myclientid4" secret="myclientsecret"
                                        type="CONFIDENTIAL" clientName="Mule Bookstore" description="Mule-powered On-line Bookstore">
                    <oauth2-provider:redirect-uris>
                        <oauth2-provider:redirect-uri>http://localhost*</oauth2-provider:redirect-uri>
                    </oauth2-provider:redirect-uris>
                    <oauth2-provider:authorized-grant-types>
                        <oauth2-provider:authorized-grant-type>CLIENT_CREDENTIALS</oauth2-provider:authorized-grant-type>
                    </oauth2-provider:authorized-grant-types>
                    <oauth2-provider:scopes>
                        <oauth2-provider:scope>READ_RESOURCE</oauth2-provider:scope>
                        <oauth2-provider:scope>POST_RESOURCE</oauth2-provider:scope>
                    </oauth2-provider:scopes>
                </oauth2-provider:client>
            </oauth2-provider:clients>
    </oauth2-provider:config>
 
    <http:listener-config name="HTTP_Listener_Configuration" host="localhost" port="8082" doc:name="HTTP Listener Configuration"/>
    <flow name="protected-client-creds" doc:name="DemoRestRouterFlow1">
        <http:listener config-ref="HTTP_Listener_Configuration" path="/resources" doc:name="HTTP"/>    
        <oauth2-provider:validate config-ref="oauth2ProviderClientCreds" doc:name="Validate Token" scopes="READ_RESOURCE"/>
        <set-payload value="#[ ['name' : 'payroll', 'uri' : 'http://localhost:8081/resources/payroll'] ]" doc:name="Set Payload"/>
        <json:object-to-json-transformer doc:name="Object to JSON"/>
    </flow>
     
</mule>

To test this example:

  1. Send a POST request to the token endpoint that includes the user name and password:

    
                
             
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    POST /sampleapi/api/token HTTP/1.1
    Host: localhost:8082
    Cache-Control: no-cache
    Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
     
    grant_type=client_credentials&client_id=myclientid4&client_secret=myclientsecret&scope=READ_RESOURCE
  2. If everything works correctly, a JSON response appears. For example:

    
                
             
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    {
        "scope": "READ_RESOURCE",
        "expires_in": 86400,
        "token_type": "bearer",
        "access_token": "4juchYVW5ZNNSH_OOU0jxziixjdJ7yhdZTJW5tbi80cJO3oAF-lTD6D05gw2EKA9yxUuOLf-f_oVBX6z0aRI9w"
    }
  3. Include the access_token as a header in your requests to access protected resources:

    access_token=4juchYVW5ZNNSH_OOU0jxziixjdJ7yhdZTJW5tbi80cJO3oAF-lTD6D05gw2EKA9yxUuOLf-f_oVBX6z0aRI9w