Create an OData v4 API

The OData MySQL example shows you how to use an HTTP-based data service to query a MySQL database.

Prerequisites

The following software is required to create and use an OData REST API with APIkit:

  • OData Plugin

  • Mule runtime engine 4.3.0 or later

  • Anypoint Studio 7.9.0 or later

Scaffold an OData v4 API Using APIkit for OData

  1. In Studio, select File > New > Mule Project.

  2. In the Project Name field, type the name of your Mule project.

  3. Click Finish.

  4. In src/main/resources/api, create a new file with a .csdl.xml extension.
    For example, odata-metadata.csdl.xml:

    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
    <edmx:Edmx Version="4.0" xmlns:edmx="http://docs.oasis-open.org/odata/ns/edmx">
      <edmx:DataServices>
        <Schema xmlns="http://docs.oasis-open.org/odata/ns/edm" Namespace="odata4.namespace">
          <EntityType Name="Customers"> (1)
            <Key> (2)
              <PropertyRef Name="CustomerID" />
            </Key>
            <Property Name="CompanyName" Type="Edm.String" MaxLength="40" Unicode="false" />
            <Property Name="ContactName" Type="Edm.String" MaxLength="30" Unicode="false" />
            <Property Name="ContactTitle" Type="Edm.String" MaxLength="30" Unicode="false" />
            <Property Name="CustomerID" Type="Edm.String" Nullable="false" MaxLength="5" Unicode="false" />
            <NavigationProperty Name="Orders" Type="Collection(odata4.namespace.Orders)"/>
          </EntityType>
          <EntityType Name="Orders">
            <Key>
              <PropertyRef Name="OrderID" />
              <PropertyRef Name="ShipName" />
            </Key>
            <Property Name="Freight" Type="Edm.Decimal" Precision="19" Scale="4" />
            <Property Name="OrderDate" Type="Edm.DateTimeOffset" Unicode="false" />
            <Property Name="OrderID" Type="Edm.Int32" Nullable="false" Unicode="false" />
            <Property Name="CustomerID" Type="Edm.String" MaxLength="5"/>
            <Property Name="Price" Type="Edm.Single" Unicode="false" />
            <Property Name="Priority" Type="Edm.Int16" Unicode="false" />
            <Property Name="ShipAddress" Type="Edm.String" MaxLength="60" Unicode="false" />
            <Property Name="ShipName" Type="Edm.String" Nullable="false" MaxLength="40" Unicode="false" />
            <NavigationProperty Name="Customer" Type="odata4.namespace.Customers">
            	<ReferentialConstraint Property="CustomerID" ReferencedProperty="CustomerID" />
            </NavigationProperty>
          </EntityType>
          <EntityContainer Name="OData4EntityContainer"> (3)
            <EntitySet Name="Customers" EntityType="odata4.namespace.Customers"> (4)
            	<NavigationPropertyBinding Path="Orders" Target="Orders"/>
            </EntitySet>
            <EntitySet Name="Orders" EntityType="odata4.namespace.Orders"/>
          </EntityContainer>
        </Schema>
      </edmx:DataServices>
    </edmx:Edmx>
    1 EntityType defines the type and its properties
    2 key defines which property or set of properties is the key for the entity.
    For example, the entity set Orders is composed of two keys OrderID and ShipName.
    3 EntityContainer defines the sets of exposed entities.
    In this example, Orders and Customers.
    4 EntitySet contains a name and EntityType.
    Both must be defined in the schema namespace.
  5. In the Package Explorer view, right-click your odata-metadata.csdl.xml file > Generate Mule OData 4 API:

    generate odata v4 api
  6. APIkit generates the corresponding flows based on your .csdl.xml metadata file.

    generated odata 4 flow
    1 The main flow that receives messages and routes the operation to the correct handler.
    2 Five flows with GET, PUT, POST, and DELETE operations for each entity.
    3 A flow with a GET operation to retrieve the collection of entities.

Handle OData System Query Options

Within each On Entity Request and On Entity Collection Request listener you can access a systemQueryOptions attribute that maps to each OData query option ($select, $orderBy, $count, etc.). For example, to access the $select value you use the following expression:

#[attributes.odataRequestAttributes.systemQueryOptions.select]

odata query option attributes

Use The Transform to SQL Operation

APIkit for OData 4 contains a Transform to SQL Select operation to transform the input OData GET request to a SQL SELECT query. The operation is useful when combined with the select operation of the Database Connector. The output payload is a prepared statement and the attributes are a map of prepared statement parameters.

transform to sql transformer
add db transform to sql
serialize transform to sql

APIkit for OData 4 Implementation Example

Download the full apikit-odata4-example application and run it.

After Studio deploys the application, you can query your OData service using the following query examples:

GET Request Example

Request
curl --location --request GET 'localhost:8081/api/Customers('BLAUS')'
Response
{
  "@odata.context": "http://localhost:8081/api/$metadata#Customers/$entity",
  "CompanyName": "Blauer See Delikatessen",
  "ContactName": "Hanna Moos",
  "ContactTitle": "Sales Representative",
  "CustomerID": "BLAUS"
}

GET Request Example With Composite Key

Request
curl --location --request GET 'localhost:8081/api/Orders(OrderID=10315,ShipName='Island Trading')
Response
{
  "@odata.context": "http://localhost:8081/api/$metadata#Orders/$entity",
  "Freight": 41.76,
  "OrderDate": "1996-09-26T00:00:00Z",
  "OrderID": "10315",
  "Price": null,
  "Priority": 1,
  "ShipAddress": "Garden house Crowther Way",
  "ShipName": "Island Trading"
}

Create Example

In this example, the client provides the key (or keys) to create a new entity:

POST Customer Request
curl --location --request POST 'http://localhost:8081/api/Customers' \
--header 'Content-Type: application/json' \
--data-raw '{
   "CompanyName": "Mulesoft",
   "ContactName": "Customer 123",
   "CustomerID": "NW123"
}'
POST Order
curl --location --request POST 'http://localhost:8081/api/Orders' \
--header 'Content-Type: application/json' \
--data-raw '{
   "Freight": 32.38,
   "OrderID": 100000,
   "ShipAddress": "Unknown St. 123",
   "ShipName": "Order 100000"
}'

Update Example

OData v4 recommends using PATCH to update entities because it only changes the provided fields:

PATCH
curl --location --request PATCH 'http://localhost:8081/api/Customers('\''BOTTM'\'')' \
--header 'Content-Type: application/json' \
--data-raw '{
   "ContactName": "James Bottom"
}'
curl --location --request PATCH 'http://localhost:8081/api/Orders(OrderID=10251,ShipName='\''Victuailles en stock'\'')' \
--header 'Content-Type: application/json' \
--data-raw '{
   "ShipAddress": "Unknown Av. 1234"
}'

OData v4 discourages the usage of PUT to update your entities because it replaces the entire entity with a new one risking you a possible data loss.

PUT
curl --location --request PUT 'http://localhost:8081/api/Customers('\''LONEP'\'')' \
--header 'Content-Type: application/json' \
--data-raw '{
   "CompanyName": "New Lonesome Pine Restaurant",
   "ContactName": "Fran C. Wilson",
   "CustomerID": "LONEP"
}'
curl --location --request PUT 'http://localhost:8081/api/Orders(OrderID=11056,ShipName='\''Eastern Connection'\'')' \
--header 'Content-Type: application/json' \
--data-raw '{
   "Freight": 27.52,
   "OrderDate": "1998-05-28T00:00:00",
   "OrderID": 11056,
   "Priority": 2,
   "ShipAddress": "45 King George",
   "ShipName": "Eastern Connection"
}'

Delete Example

To delete the entity:

DELETE
curl --location --request DELETE 'http://localhost:8081/api/Customers('\''NW123'\'')'
curl --location --request DELETE 'http://localhost:8081/api/Orders(OrderID=11056,ShipName='\''Eastern Connection'\'')'

Client-Side Pagination in APIkit for OData 4

You can configure your client to request the page using the HTTP query parameters $skip and $top.

  • The $top system query parameter specifies a non-negative integer n that limits the number of items returned from a collection.

  • The $skip system query parameter specifies a non-negative integer n that excludes the first n items of the queried collection from the result.

For example:

curl -X GET ‘localhost:8081/api/Customers?$skip=1&$top=5’

Returns five records starting from the second position.

Server-Side Pagination in APIkit for OData 4

Your API implementation retrieves a limited number of records using a fix pageSize parameter. The response of the first request contains @odata.nextlink with a URL to get the next page.

For example:

curl -X GET ‘localhost:8081/api/Orders’
Response
{
	value: [{ set of records}],
	“@odata.nextlink”: ‘localhost:8081/api/Orders?$skiptoken=10’
}

In this example, $skiptoken is "10", because the pageSize parameter is configured to return ten records.

When you request the @odata.nextlink URL, you get the following response:

{
	value: [{ set of records}],
	“@odata.nextlink” : ‘localhost:8081/api/Orders?$skiptoken=20’
}

The last page does not return a odata.nextlink field.

Was this article helpful?

💙 Thanks for your feedback!

Edit on GitHub
Give us your feedback!
We want to build the best documentation experience for you!
Help us improve with your feedback.
Take the survey!